When we step into world of Electrical Engineering, our primary task is to produce the electrical power where as the secondary task is about its distribution and transmission. This article is concerned with the production of electrical power and is helpful for the students of Electrical Engineering.
How electricity is produced?
Electricity is generally produced by the process of Electromagnetic induction. Generally the alternators are used to produce electricity. The alternators work on the principle of electromagnetic induction, when the current carrying conductor cuts the magnetic field then an emf is induced. Now in alternators the Stator contains a permanent magnet fixed on it. On the rotor there is winding of coil, when this coil is energized and the rotor is rotated then an alternation voltage is induced. It is a common observation that the electricity that we are utilizing is generally the Alternating quantity. Hence this is a basic way to generate an electricity.
On the other side, the solar energy is being utilized to produce electricity but this time not with the help of electromagnetic induction. The solar cells are generally made from the semiconducting materials like silicon or germanium. The solar cells convert the sun rays directly into electricity by exciting the electrons of semiconducting material using the photons of light energy from the sun. Photons from sun-light break up the negative positive pairs. Some of the electrons are knocked out towards the top layer and the conductor strips conduct these electrons and hence electricity is produced.
Since we are familiar with law of conservation of energy “Energy is neither created nor destroyed but can be changed from one form to another.” Electricity is actually a form of energy commonly termed as an electrical energy. This type of energy is not naturally present in the universe but is it produced from other forms of energy. Here are six common energy sources used to make electricity.
For example: Burning of coal, oil, natural gas.
Electrical Power Plant A Power plant is an industrial manufacturer of electricity. It generates electricity by using various sources of energy. A power plant contains all the apparatuses which are used to generate electricity like alternators or solar cells. Simply speaking, a power plant is a producer and a supplier of the electricity of a country. Some types of Power Plant are:
Hydro Power Plant: In Hydropower Plant the water is used as a source to produce electricity. The stream flow of water helps to rotate the turbine through which rotor of generator rotates and hence the electricity is produced. The inflow of water is controlled by the control gate. Most hydro power plants rely on the dam.Wind Power Plant: In this power plant the wind energy is used to produce electricity. The wind speed rotates the fans of the wind mill due to which rotor rotates. The rotor is connected to the main shaft, which spins generator to generate electricity.
Wind Power Plant:
In this power plant the wind energy is used to produce electricity. The wind speed rotates the fans of the wind mill due to which rotor rotates. The rotor is connected to the main shaft, which spins generator to generate electricity
Nuclear Power Plant: In this case the nuclear energy is used to produce electrical energy. We are aware of the fact that the atomic reaction results in some release of energy i-e heat energy. The heat energy released by atomic reactions in nuclear reactor is utilized to produce electrical energy. This heat energy converts the water into the steam at the reactor core. The pressure of steam makes the turbine to rotate due to which rotor rotates and hence the electricity is produced
Thermal Power Plant: Thermal Power plants use water as a working fluid. The burning of fossil fuels or coals or the atomic reactions (nuclear reactor) is used to produce heat energy. Now this heat converts the water into high pressurized and high temperature steam. This pressurized steam rotates the turbine and electricity is generated.
Written by :
Department of Electrical Engineering
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